Wang L, Wang Y, Han W, Xu G, Döring A, Daoud WA, XU J, Rogach AL, Xi Y, Zi Y (2020), Carbon Dot Based Composite Films for Simultaneously Harvesting Raindrop Energy and Boosting Solar Energy Conversion Efficiency in Hybrid Cells, ACS Nano, 14, 10359-10369. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.0c03986
Ao Ke, Wei Q, Daoud WA (2020), MOF-Derived Sulfide-Based Electrocatalyst and Scaffold for Boosted Hydrogen Production, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 12, 33595-33602. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.0c04302
Wang Q, Daoud WA (2020), Aqueous Multi-electron Electrolyte for Hybrid Flow Batteries with High Energy and Power Densities, Journal of Power Sources Advances, 4, 100018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powera.2020.100018
Uyanga, KA, Okpozo, OP, Onyekwere, OS, Daoud, WA (2020), Citric acid crosslinked natural bi-polymer-based composite hydrogels: Effect of polymer ratio and beta-cyclodextrin on hydrogel microstructure, Reactive and Functional Polymers, 154, 104682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2020.104682
Wu Y, Luo Y, Qu J, Daoud WA, Qi T (2020), Sustainable and Shape-adaptable Liquid Single-electrode Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Biomechanical Energy Harvesting, Nano Energy, 105027. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2020.105027
Zhang W, Xiong J, Li J, Daoud WA (2020), Seed-Assisted Growth for Low Temperature Processed All-Inorganic CsPbIBr2 Solar Cells with Efficiency Over 10%, Small, 2001535. https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.202001535
Zhang W, Xiong J, Li J, Daoud WA (2020), Guanidinium Passivation for Air Stable Rubidium Incorporated Cs(1-x)RbxPbI2Br Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells, Solar RRL, 2000112. https://doi.org/10.1002/solr.202000112
Zhang W, Xiong J, Li J, Daoud WA (2020), Impact of Temperature Dependent Hydration Water on Perovskite Solar Cells, Solar RRL, 4, 1900370. https://doi.org/10.1002/solr.201900370
Smith S, Firdous I, Wang Q, Esmalla S & Daoud WA (2019), A two-dimensional model of the vanadium–cerium redox flow battery, Electrochimica Acta, 328, 135019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2019.135019
Wang L & Daoud WA (2019), Hybrid conductive hydrogels for washable human motion energy harvester and self-powered temperature-stress dual sensor, Nano Energy, 66, 104080. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2019.104080
Zhang W, Xiong J, Li J & Daoud WA (2019), Impact of Temperature-Dependent Hydration Water on Perovskite Solar Cells, Solar RRL, 1900370. https://doi.org/10.1002/solr.201900370
Wu Y, Luo Y, Qu J, Daoud WA & Qi T (2019), Liquid single-electrode triboelectric nanogenerator based on graphene oxide dispersion for wearable electronics, Nano Energy, 64, 103948. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2019.103948
Wang Q & Daoud WA (2019), Reaction kinetics of cerium on glassy carbon with in situ electrochemical treatment for cerium-based flow battery, Electrochimica Acta, 315, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2019.05.083
Uyanga K. & Daoud WA (2019), Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Chitosan Based Composite Hydrogels for Biomedical and Non-Biomedical Applications, ICBHB 2019: 21st International Conference on Biocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials 2019. https://scholars.cityu.edu.hk/en/publications/publication(0b793e54-3d7f-43c8-bf47-6b16b5a6c010).html
Wu Y, Qu J, Daoud WA, Wang L & Qi T (2019), Flexible composite-nanofiber based piezo-triboelectric nanogenerators for wearable electronics, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 7, 13347-13355. https://doi.org/10.1039/c9ta02345c
Zhang W, Xiong J, Li J & Daoud WA (2019), Guanidinium induced phase separated perovskite layer for efficient and highly stable solar cells, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 7, 9486-9496. https://doi.org/10.1039/c9ta01893j
Zhang W, Xiong J, Li J & Daoud WA (2019), Mechanism of Water Effect on Enhancing the Photovoltaic Performance of Triple-Cation Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 11, 12699-12708.
Xiang Y & Daoud WA (2019), Investigation of an advanced catalytic effect of cobalt oxide modification on graphite felt as the positive electrode of the vanadium redox flow battery, Journal of Power Sources, 416, 175-183.
Xiang Y & Daoud WA (2019), Binary NiCoO2-modified graphite felt as an advanced positive electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 7, 5589-5600. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8ta09650c
Wang L & Daoud WA (2019), Highly Flexible and Transparent Polyionic-Skin Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Biomechanical Motion Harvesting, Advanced Energy Materials, 9, 1803183. https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201803183
Wang L, Yang X & Daoud WA (2019), High power-output mechanical energy harvester based on flexible and transparent Au nanoparticle-embedded polymer matrix, Nano Energy, 55, 433-440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.10.030
Yang X & Daoud WA (2018), Design parameters impact on output characteristics of flexible hybrid energy harvesting generator: Experimental and theoretical simulation based on a parallel hybrid model, Nano Energy, 50, 794-806.
Yang X, Chan S, Wang L & Daoud WA (2018), Water tank triboelectric nanogenerator for efficient harvesting of water wave energy over a broad frequency range, Nano Energy, 44, 388-398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.12.025
Wang L & Daoud WA (2017), UV-Induced Photocatalytic Cashmere Fibers, Materials, 10, 1414.
Zhang W, Xiong J, Jiang L, Wang J, Mei T, Wang X, Gu H & 2 others (2017), Thermal Stability-Enhanced and High-Efficiency Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with Interface Passivation, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 9, 38467-38476.
Hu Y, Daoud WA, Fei B, Chen L, Kwan TH & Lin CSK (2017), Efficient ZnO aqueous nanoparticle catalysed lactide synthesis for poly(lactic acid) fibre production from food waste, Journal of Cleaner Production, 165, 157-167.
Pakdel E, Daoud WA, Afrin T, Sun L & Wang X (2017), Enhanced antimicrobial coating on cotton and its impact on UV protection and physical characteristics, Cellulose, 24, 4003-4015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-017-1374-y
Chai G, Luo S, Zhou H. & Daoud WA (2017), CH3NH3PbI3 - xBrx perovskite solar cells via spray assisted two-step deposition: Impact of bromide on stability and cell performance, Materials and Design, 125, 222-229.
Huen P & Daoud WA (2017), Advances in hybrid solar photovoltaic and thermoelectric generators, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 72, 1295-1302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.10.042
Hu Y, Kwan TH, Daoud WA & Lin CSK (2017), Continuous ultrasonic-mediated solvent extraction of lactic acid from fermentation broths, Journal of Cleaner Production, 145, 142-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.01.055
Xiang Y & Daoud WA (2017), Electrochemical enhancement of carbon paper by indium modification for the positive side of vanadium redox flow battery, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 164, A2256-A2261.
Yang X & Daoud WA (2016), Triboelectric and Piezoelectric Effects in a Combined Tribo-Piezoelectric Nanogenerator Based on an Interfacial ZnO Nanostructure, Advanced Functional Materials, 26, 8194-8201.
Gali NK, Ning Z, Daoud WA & Brimblecombe P (2016), Investigation on the mechanism of non-photocatalytically TiO2-induced reactive oxygen species and its significance on cell cycle and morphology, Journal of Applied Toxicology, 36, 1355-1363. https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.3341
Wang Q & Daoud WA (2016), Temperature influence on the reaction kinetics of V(IV)/V(V) in methanesulfonic acid for all-vanadium redox flow battery, Electrochimica Acta, 214, 11-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2016.08.011
Rivero CP, Hu Y, Kwan TH, Webb C, Theodoropoulos C, Daoud W & Lin CSK (2016), 1 - Bioplastics From Solid Waste, Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Solid Waste Management, 1-26.
Li L, Nikiforidis G, Leung MKH & Daoud WA (2016), Vanadium microfluidic fuel cell with novel multi-layer flow-through porous electrodes: Model, simulations and experiments, Applied Energy, 177, 729-739.
Luo S, You P, Cai G, Zhou H, Yan F & Daoud WA (2016), The influence of chloride on interdiffusion method for perovskite solar cells, Materials Letters, 169, 236-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2016.01.114
LUO S. & Daoud WA (2016), Crystal Structure Formation of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx Perovskite, Materials, 9, 123.
Pakdel E, Daoud WA, Afrin T, Sun L & Wang X (2015), Self-cleaning wool: effect of noble metals and silica on visible-light-induced functionalities of nano TiO2 colloid, Journal of the Textile Institute, 106, 1348-1361.
Pakdel E, Daoud WA & Wang X (2015), Assimilating the photo-induced functions of TiO2-based compounds in textiles: emphasis on the sol-gel process, Textile Research Journal, 85, 1404-1428. https://doi.org/10.1177/0040517514551462
Luo S & Daoud WA (2015), Recent progress in organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells: mechanisms and material design, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 3, 8992-9010. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ta04953e
Nikiforidis G, Xiang Y & Daoud WA (2015), Electrochemical behavior of carbon paper on cerium methanesulfonate electrolytes for zinc-cerium flow battery, Electrochimica Acta, 157,274-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2014.11.134
Wong A, Daoud WA, Liang H & Szeto YS (2015), Application of rutile and anatase onto cotton fabric and their effect on the NIR reflection/surface temperature of the fabric, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 134, 425-437.
Pakdel E, Daoud WA, Sun L & Wang X (2015), Photostability of wool fabrics coated with pure and modified TiO2 colloids, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 440, 299-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2014.10.032
Wang L & Daoud WA (2015), BiOI/TiO2-nanorod array heterojunction solar cell: Growth, charge transport kinetics and photoelectrochemical properties, Applied Surface Science, 324, 532-537. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.10.110
Nikiforidis G & Daoud WA (2015), Thermally modified graphite electrodes for the positive side of the zinc-cerium redox flow battery, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 162, A809-A819. https://doi.org/10.1149/2.0041506jes
Pakdel E, Daoud WA, Sun L & Wang X (2014), Visible and UV functionality of TiO2 ternary nanocomposites on cotton, Applied Surface Science, 321, 447-456. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.10.018
Afzal S, Daoud WA & Langford SJ (2014), Superhydrophobic and photocatalytic self-cleaning cotton, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2, 18005-18011. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ta02764g
Pakdel E, Daoud WA, Sun L & Wang X (2014), Reprint of: Photostability of wool fabrics coated with pure and modified
Afzal S, Daoud WA & Langford SJ (2014), Exploring the use of dye-sensitisation by visible-light as new approach to self-cleaning textiles, Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, 61, 757-762. https://doi.org/10.1002/jccs.201400050
Bian J, Huang C, Wang L, Hung T, Daoud WA & Zhang R (2014), Carbon dot loading and TiO2 nanorod length dependence of photoelectrochemical properties in carbon dot/TiO2 nanorod array nanocomposites, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 6, 4883-4890. https://doi.org/10.1021/am4059183
Wong A, Daoud WA, Liang H & Szeto YS (2014), The effect of aging and precursor concentration on room-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2, Materials Letters, 117, 82-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2013.11.056
Tung WS, Daoud WA & Henrion G (2013), Enhancement of anatase functionalization and photocatalytic self-cleaning properties of keratins by microwave-generated plasma afterglow, Thin Solid Films, 545, 310-319.
Pakdel E & Daoud WA (2013), Self-cleaning cotton functionalized with TiO2/SiO2: Focus on the role of silicaIn, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 401, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2013.03.016
Pakdel E, Daoud WA & Wang X (2013), Self-cleaning and superhydrophilic wool by TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite, Applied Surface Science, 275, 397-402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2012.10.141
Afzal S, Daoud WA & Langford SJ (2013), Visible-light self-cleaning cotton by metalloporphyrin-sensitized photocatalysis,
Afzal S, Daoud WA & Langford SJ (2013), Photostable self-cleaning cotton by a copper(II) porphyrin/TiO2 visible-light photocatalytic system, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 5, 4753-4759. https://doi.org/10.1021/am400002k
Lazar MA & Daoud WA (2013), Achieving selectivity in TiO2-based photocatalysis, RSC Advances, 3, 4130 - 4140.
Lopez L, Daoud WA, Dutta D, Panther BC & Turney TW (2013), Effect of substrate on surface morphology and photocatalysis of large-scale TiO2 films, Applied Surface Science, 265, 162-16.
Lopez L, Daoud WA, Dutta A, Panther B & Turney T (2013), Effect of Substrate on Surface Morphology and Photocatalysis of Large Scale TiO2 Thin Films, Applied Surface Science, 265,162 - 168.
Pakdel E, Daoud WA & Wang X(2013), Multifunctional cotton fabric using TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite, Fiber Society Spring 2013 Technical Conference.
Daoud WA ed., Self-cleaning materials and surfaces: a nanotechnology approach (Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2013)
Afzal S, Daoud WA & Langford SJ (2012), Self-cleaning cotton by porphyrin-sensitized visible-light photocatalysis, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 22, 4083-4088. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2jm15146d
Tung WS & Daoud WA (2010), Self-cleaning surface functionalisation of keratins: Effect of heat treatment and formulation preparation time on photocatalysis and fibres mechanical properties, Surface Engineering, 26, 525-531.
Lopez L, Daoud WA & Dutta D (2010), Preparation of large scale photocatalytic TiO2 films by the sol-gel process, Surface and Coatings Technology, 205, 251-257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2010.06.028
Cheng SY, Yuen CWM, Kan CW, Cheuk KKL, Daoud WA, Lam PL & Tsoi WY (2010), Influence of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on various fibrous materials: Performance properties and surface adhesion analysis, Vacuum, 84,
Tung WS & Daoud WA (2010), Self-Cleaning Wool: Effect of Formulation Concentration on Low-Stress Mechanical and Surface Properties, Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, 14, 83-88. https://doi.org/10.1108/RJTA-14-02-2010-B010
Daoud WA, Ngan M & Cheuk K (2010), Biodegradable poly(l-lactic acid)-lavender nanocapsules: Synthesis, controlled release, and application in remedy of sleep disorder, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 10, 1255-1260.
Lazar MA, Tadvani JK, Tung WS, Lopez L & Daoud WA (2010), Nanostructured thin films as functional coatings, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 12, 12017. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/12/1/012017
Tung WS & Daoud WA (2009), New approach toward nanosized ferrous ferric oxide and Fe 3O 4-doped titanium dioxide photocatalysts, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 1, 2453-2461. https://doi.org/10.1021/am900418q
Tung WS, Daoud WA & Leung SK (2009), Understanding photocatalytic behavior on biomaterials: Insights from TiO2 concentration, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 339, 424-433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2009.07.043
Tung WS & Daoud WA (2009), Corrigendum to "Photocatalytic self-cleaning keratins: A feasibility study [Acta Biomaterialia 5 (2009) 50-56]" (DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2008.08.009), Acta Biomaterialia, 5, 4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2009.02.024
Tung WS & Daoud W A (2009), Effect of wettability and silicone surface modification on the self-cleaning functionalization of wool, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 112, 235-243. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.29396
Tung WS & Daoud WA (2009), Photocatalytic self-cleaning keratins: A feasibility study, Acta Biomaterialia, 5, 50-56.
Tung WS & Daoud WA (2008), Photocatalytic formulations for protein fibers: Experimental analysis of the effect of preparation on compatibility and photocatalytic activities, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 326, 283-288.
Daoud WA & Tung WS (2008), Self-cleaning fibers via nanotechnology - a virtual reality, 2008 8th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology, IEEE-NANO, 1-24616991. https://doi.org/10.1109/NANO.2008.9
Qi K, Xin JH, Daoud WA & Mak CL (2007), Functionalizing polyester fiber with a self-cleaning property using anatase TiO2 and low-temperature plasma treatment, International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, 4, 554-563.
Zhang Y, Li Y, Li G, Huang H, Chan HLW, Daoud WA, Xin JH & 1 others (2007), Polyimide-surface-modified silica tubes: Preparation and cryogenic properties, Chemistry of Materials, 19, 1939-1945. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm062540m
Qi K, Chen X, Liu Y, Xin JH., Mak CL & Daoud WA (2007), Facile preparation of anatase/SiO2 spherical nanocomposites and their application in self-cleaning textiles, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 17, 3504-3508.
Zhang YH, Xin JH, Daoud, WA & Hao X (2007), UV-blocking properties of silica/titania hybrid nanocomposites, Key Engineering Materials, 334-335, 1065-1068.
Daoud WA & Pang GKH (2006), Direct synthesis of nanowires with anatase and TiO2-B structures at near ambient
conditions, Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 110, 25746-25750. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp064453n
Daoud WA, Xin JH, Zhang YH & Mak, CL (2006), Pulsed laser deposition of superhydrophobic thin Teflon films on cellulosic fibers, Thin Solid Films, 515, 835-837. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2005.12.245
Daoud WA, Xin JH & Tao X (2006), Synthesis and characterization of hydrophobic silica nanocomposites, Applied Surface Science, 252, 5368-5371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2005.12.020
Daoud WA & Turner ML (2006), Effect of interfacial properties and film thickness on device performance of bilayer TiO2-poly(1,4-phenylenevinylene) solar cells prepared by spin coating, Reactive and Functional Polymers, 66, 13-20.
Qi K, Daoud WA, Xin JH, Mak CL, Tang W & Cheung WP (2006), Self-cleaning cotton, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 16,
Qi K, Daoud WA, Xin J & Mak CL (2006), Self-cleaning cotton fabrics, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings,
Daoud WA, Xin JH & Zhang Y (2005), Surface functionalization of cellulose fibers with titanium dioxide nanoparticles and their combined bactericidal activities, Surface Science, 599, 69-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susc.2005.09.038
Daoud WA & Xin JH (2005), Erratum: Synthesis of single-phase anatase nanocrystallites at near room temperatures (Chemical Communication (2005) (2110-2112) (DOI: 10.1039/b418821g)), Chemical Communications, 48.
Zhang Y, Dang Z, Xin JH, Daoud WA, Ji J, Liu Y, Fei B & 4 others (2005), Dielectric properties of polyimide-mica hybrid
films, Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 26, 1473-1477. https://doi.org/10.1002/marc.200500310
Daoud WA, Xin JH & Szeto YS (2005), Polyethylenedioxythiophene coatings for humidity, temperature and strain sensing polyamide fibers, Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, 109, 329-333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2004.12.067
Zhang Y, Li Y, Fu S, Xin JH, Daoud WA & Li L. (2005), Synthesis and cryogenic properties of polyimide-silica hybrid films by sol-gel process, Polymer, 46, 8373-8378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2005.07.012
Daoud WA, Xin JH, Zhang Y & Qi K (2005), Surface characterization of thin titania films prepared at low temperatures, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 351, 1486-1490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2005.03.036
Daoud WA & Xin JH (2005), Synthesis of single-phase anatase nanocrystallites at near room temperatures, Chemical Communications, 16, 2110-2112. https://doi.org/10.1039/b418821g
Daoud WA & Turner ML (2005), Efficient synthesis of 1,4-dialkoxy and 1,4-dialkyl substituted 2,5-divinylbenzenes via the Stille reaction, Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 78, 367-369. https://doi.org/10.1246/bcsj.78.367
Daoud WA & Xin JH (2005), Formation of nanocrystalline anatase coatings on cotton fabrics at low temperature, Ceramic Transactions, 159, 39-45.
Daoud WA, Xin JH & Pang GKH (2005), Microstructural evolution of titania nanocrystallites by a hydrothermal treatment: A HRTEM study, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 88, 443-446. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1551-2916.2005.00046.x
Daoud WA & Xin JH (2005), Photocatalytic titania coatings by a low-temparature sol-gel process, Ceramic Transactions,
Daoud WA & Xin JH (2005), Surface characterization of low-temperature processed titania coatings produced on cotton fabrics, Ceramic Transactions, 158, 47-52.
Daoud WA & Xin JH (2004), Erratum: Regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophenes): Synthesis, characterization, and application in conductive fabrics (Journal of Applied Polymer Science (2004) 93 (2131)), Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 94, 4.
Wang R, Xin JH, Tao X M & Daoud WA (2004), ZnO nanorods grown on cotton fabrics at low temperature, Chemical Physics Letters, 398, 250-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2004.09.077
Daoud WA & Xin JH (2004), Regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophenes): Synthesis, characterization, and application in conductive fabrics, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 93, 2131-2135. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.20695
Daoud WA, Xin JH & Tao X (2004), Superhydrophobic silica nanocomposite coating by a low-temperature process, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 87, 1782-1784.
Daoud WA & Xin JH (2004), Nucleation and growth of anatase crystallites on cotton fabrics at low temperatures, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 87, 953-955.
Xin JH, Daoud WA & Kong YY (2004), A new approach to UV-blocking treatment for cotton fabrics, Textile Research
Journal, 74, 97-100. https://doi.org/10.1177/004051750407400202
Daoud WA & Xin JH (2004), Low Temperature Sol-Gel Processed Photocatalytic Titania Coating, Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 29, 25-29. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JSST.0000016134.19752.b4